945,087 sq km (364,900 sq miles).
49.6 million (2014).
52.5 per sq km.
Head of state:
President Jakaya Kikwete since 2005. Zanzibar is semi-autonomous and has its own parliament and president (President Ali Mohamed Shein since 2010).
Head of government:
President Jakaya Kikwete since 2005.
230 volts AC, 50Hz. British-style plugs with three square pins are mostly used, but plugs with three round pins are also in use. Power cuts are common in the rainy season, though most large hotels and businesses have back-up generators.
If you close your eyes and conjure up the quintessential romantic image of Africa, what you’ll most likely imagine is Tanzania: the drama of the wildebeest migration along a seemingly-endless savannah; the incongruous snow and glaciers of Mt Kilimanjaro; the iconic and statuesque Maasai warriors; the exotic palm-fringed beaches on the spice islands of Zanzibar. It’s all here.
Tanzania boasts some of the most impressive national parks and game reserves in Africa. The Serengeti National Park is considered the continent’s premier spot to see wildlife roam unheeded across vast open plains.
Nearby, within the steep walls of the Ngorongoro Crater lies the most densely concentrated population of African mammals on earth. Not to be forgotten, the Selous Game Reserve is larger than Switzerland, and is wild, remote and still virtually untouched by humans.
Even further from the beaten path are parks in the extreme west of the country which offer the unique opportunity to track chimpanzees in their natural habitat on the fringes of Lake Tanganyika, one of Africa’s Great Lakes.
Beyond its safari stalwarts, Tanzania has no less than 804km (503 miles) of sublime coastline and pearly-white beaches with some magnificent islands offshore. Known as the Swahili Coast, this was a favoured stop on ancient trading routes between the Indian sub-continent and the Middle East. Spices, jewels and slaves once passed through, bringing with them a mélange of cultural riches that remain today.
Tanzania’s not short on mountains either. The striking and snow-capped Mt Kilimanjaro is Africa’s tallest at 5,895m (19,341ft) and climbing it is an unforgettable experience. Its slightly smaller sister Mt Meru is arguably even prettier, and a quicker climb.
Tanzania is home to more than 120 different ethnic groups and cultures, but it has seen little of the ethnic or religious-based violence that has afflicted certain other nations in the region. In fact the country is an inherently peaceful place and embraces its multicultural heritage, which adds to its broad appeal.
Last updated: 19 October 2015
The travel advice summary below is provided by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in the UK. ‘We’ refers to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. For their full travel advice, visit www.gov.uk/foreign-travel-advice.
Although most visits to Tanzania are trouble-free, violent and armed crime is increasing. Mugging, bag snatching (especially from passing cars) and robbery have increased throughout the country. In Dar es Salaam, British tourists have been kidnapped, robbed and forced with the threat of violence to withdraw cash from ATMs and arrange cash transfers up to £5,000 through Western Union after being befriended by strangers or using unlicensed taxis. In 2014, a group of British citizens were the victims of an armed robbery while travelling by bus in the Tabora region and 2 British nationals were involved in a violent robbery on a stretch of beach between Bahari hotel and Kunduchi hotel to the north of Dar es Salaam. There have also been reports of armed robberies at hotels on the island of Zanzibar. In March 2015, 3 British nationals were victims of a violent robbery in their home in Zanzibar.
Walk as far away from the road as possible. If you need to walk alongside the road, walk towards the traffic. Avoid carrying large amounts of cash or other valuables including expensive jewellery or watches. Leave your passport in the hotel safe and carry a photocopy for ID. If you’re attacked, don’t resist. If you carry a bag, it is safer to hold it loosely by the handle or hanging off your shoulder rather than by securing the strap across your chest. Don’t accept lifts from strangers or use unlicensed taxis. Ask your local hotel to book a taxi and always ask to see the driver’s ID. Avoid walking alone, particularly in isolated areas and on beaches.
Take particular care in places frequented by tourists. In Dar es Salaam, tourists have been targeted in the city centre, at Ubungo bus station, the peninsula area and Coco beach. In Zanzibar incidents have taken place in Stone Town and on popular tourist beaches.
Make sure residential property is secure and lock all doors and windows, especially at night. Your security guard should insist on official identification before allowing anyone to enter your property or compound. If in doubt don’t let them in and raise the alarm. In an isolated incident in August 2012 a Swiss national was killed when suspected robbers entered his property on the Peninsula area of Dar es Salaam. A British national was also assaulted in the incident. In June 2012, a Dutch national and a Tanzanian camp manager were killed when a group of Western tourists were robbed at gunpoint while camping in northern Serengeti.
In 2013, two British women were the victims of an acid attack in Stone Town, Zanzibar. This appears to be the first acid attack in Zanzibar targeting foreigners. The Tanzanian authorities have publicly condemned the attack and committed to find the perpetrators. The motive remains unclear. You should be vigilant at all times, especially after dark.
In 2013, 2 explosions took place on the island of Unguja (Zanzibar) near Mercury’s restaurant by the port and at the Anglican Cathedral in Stonetown.
Information about travel in remote areas can be patchy. Invest in an up-to-date travel guide and only use reliable tour companies.
There is a risk from unexploded ammunition and ordnance following explosions at depots in the Gongola Mboto and Mbagala districts of Dar es Salaam. Be vigilant and avoid picking up any metal or suspicious objects. Report anything suspicious to your local police station.
Careful planning is important to get the best out of your safari. If you choose to camp, only use official sites. Make sure you are properly equipped and seek local advice when travelling to isolated areas. Some parks are extremely remote, and emergency access and evacuation can be difficult.
There are risks associated with viewing wildlife, particularly on foot or at close range. Always follow park regulations and wardens’ advice, and make sure you have the correct documentation or permit before entering a national park.
If you are trekking or climbing, only use a reputable travel company, stick to established routes and always walk in groups. Make sure you are well prepared and equipped to cope with the terrain and low temperatures. The extreme altitude on Mount Kilimanjaro can cause altitude sickness.
Take particular care in the area bordering Burundi/Kigoma region. There have been armed robberies in this area, including vehicle hijackings. You should only drive in daylight hours. There are few facilities for visitors.
In the last few years there have been 2 major ferry disasters in which hundreds of people have died. In July 2012 a ferry travelling from Dar es Salaam to Stone Town in Zanzibar capsized. In September 2011, a ferry travelling between Pemba and Unguja (Zanzibar) sank. On 5 January 2014, a number of passengers were blown overboard in bad weather on a ferry travelling from Pemba to Unguja (Zanzibar). This resulted in a number of deaths.
Use a reputable ferry company and if you believe a ferry to be overloaded or unseaworthy, don’t get on. Familiarise yourself with emergency procedures on board and make a note of where the life jackets and emergency exits are located.
You should also beware of aggressive ticket touts at Tanzanian ports.
Piracy is a significant threat in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean and has occurred as far as 1,000 nautical miles from the coast of Somalia. Shipping which has not complied with industry best practice on self-defence measures, including on routing, is most at risk. There have been a number of piracy attacks in the waters immediately off Tanzania. Pirates are increasingly attacking smaller vessels, including tourist and fishing vessels, and coming closer to shore. Sailing vessels are particularly vulnerable to attack due to their low speed and low freeboard.
The capacity of the Tanzanian Navy to respond to pirate attacks is very limited. If you are intending to sail through high risk areas, consider alternatives like transporting the vessel by yacht carrier.
See our Piracy in the Indian Ocean page.
If you plan to drive during a visit to Tanzania, you will need an International Driving Permit.
Take care when driving. Road conditions are generally poor and there are a large number of accidents, often involving inter-city buses. There have been a number of serious bus crashes that have resulted in fatalities and injuries to tourists. If you have concerns about the safety of the vehicle, or the ability of the driver, use alternative transport.
Driving conditions in Tanzanian’s national parks can be unpredictable as the roads around the parks, mainly dirt tracks, are generally poor and can become hazardous or impassable after heavy rain. A 4×4 vehicle is often required.
Keep doors locked, windows up and valuables out of sight, as vehicles are sometimes targeted by thieves. Be particularly careful at night when there is a higher incidence of crime and drunk driving. Avoid driving out of town at night. If you become aware of an unusual incident, or if somebody out of uniform tries to flag you down, it is often safer not to stop.
If you are stopped by the police, ask to see identification before making any payments for traffic violations.
There have been several accidents on Tanzanian railways. Seek local advice for any long-distance train travel.
Presidential, parliamentary and local elections are scheduled for Sunday 25 October. The official campaign period began on 22 August. There may be heightened tension and unrest in the lead up to, during and after the elections particularly in towns and cities on the mainland and Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba). You should take care, be aware of your surroundings and avoid political rallies, polling stations, large crowds or public demonstrations. Make sure you have a means of communication with you at all times and monitor local media for updates.
Demonstrations and political rallies happen regularly across Tanzania (including on the islands of Unguja (Zanzibar) and Pemba). Some have turned violent and resulted in fatalities. Police may use tear gas for crowd control. Keep up to date with local and international events and avoid all demonstrations and large gatherings. If you become aware of any nearby protests, leave the area immediately and monitor our Travel Advice, Twitter and local media for up-to-date information.
Violent disturbances occurred in the district of Mtwara in May 2013. A number of explosions occurred during a political rally in Arusha on 15 June 2013.